Feb
19
2011

Kingdom Plantae

Members of the plant kingdom are multicellular, eukaryotic, photoautotrophs.  Plants have evolve a number of adaptations to life on land.  One important adaptation is the development transporting tissue called vascular tissue.  Vascular tissue consists of xylem, which conducts water and minerals absorbed by the roots through the stem to the leaves, and phloem, which conducts sugars manufactured by the leaves through the stem to the roots.  Land plants have a waxy cuticle covering their leaves […]

Feb
18
2011

HIV and the Immune Response

Millions of people are infected with HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus.  How do people get HIV?  Our body is continuously under attack by a variety of microbes, such as bacteria and viruses.  Viruses such as HIV are very different from bacteria in that they cannot replicate or grow and can reproduce only by “hijacking” the genetic machinery of the host cell that they infect.  The HIV virus is composed of the viral genetic material (in […]

Feb
18
2011

Inventor of the Bunsen Burner

Robert Wilhelm Bunsen, great German chemist, was born in Gottingen, March 31, 1811.  He was a man of tremendous versatility.  Although he is remembered mainly for the Bunsen burner, which is standard laboratory equipment in every laboratory, he also invented an electric producing battery which bears his name, discovered an antidote for arsenic poisoning, was the first to isolate metallic magnesium, eliminated costly heat waste in English and German foundries, and through his spectrum analysis, […]

Feb
17
2011

Hexagram 5, 15 and 32: Patience, Humility, Endurance

Patience A fisherman can cast the line, but can only wait for the fish to bite.  Your catch will come in its own time; you can not make it come – neither by working nor planning nor by wishing.  You may need to provide nourishment for you and your loved ones; but only through patience can you become the bridge between the fickle fish and the eventual feast.  Strength in a time of trial waits […]

Feb
17
2011

Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi

A virus is a biological agent composed of a core of nucleic acid (either DNA or RNA) surrounded by a protein coat (a capsid).  Viruses are not organized as cells and are therefore unable to perform metabolic activities associated with living things.  They must infect a host cell and coopt its enzymes and organelles in order to reproduce. Infection may occur if the viral capsid can attach to the plasma membrane or te cell wall […]

Feb
16
2011

DNA and Protein Synthesis

DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) contains the genetic information of all living things.  It is a nucleic acid polymer composed of smaller molecules (monomers) called nucleotides.  Each nucleotide has three components deoxyribose sugar, phosphate, and one of four nitrogen bases – adenine, thymine, cystosine, or guanine.  Sugar and phosphate make up the sides of the DNA ladder.  The phosphate group link the sugar molecules of the nucleotides together.  A phosphate group is attached to the 5′ carbon […]

Feb
15
2011

The Cell Cycle and Cell Division

The hereditary information of an organism is housed in the nuclei of its cells. Nuclear DNA has information for making proteins which will control the appearance and activities of the cell. In a cell that is not dividing, nuclear DNA exists as fine threads called chromatin. Before a cell divides, the molecules of DNA become compactly folded and coiled into strands called chromosomes. Each chromosomes consists of one very long molecule of DNA and its […]

Feb
14
2011

Mendelian Genetics

Gregor Mendel formulated the fundamental principles of genetics in the 1800’s after conducting horticultural experiments with garden peas.  The garden pea turned out to be a good choice for his studies, because he was able to select traits for which there were clearly two alternatives (such as stems that could only be tall or short).  He could also control pollination of these plants if he prevented self-pollination and then transferred the pollen from one plant […]

Feb
14
2011

Notes and Thoughts on The Law of Attraction

Thoughts have energy which attracts whatever it is the person is thinking of.  Inorder to control this energy to one’s advantage, proponents state that people must practice four things: 1. Know what you want. 2. Ask the Universe for it. 3. Feel, behave and know as if the object of your desire is on its way. 4. Be open to receive it and let go of (the attachment to) the outcome. Thinking of what one […]

Feb
13
2011

Two Tiers of Precautions…

There are two tiers of precautions to prevent the spread of communicable or contagious diseases.  The Standard precautions and Transmission-based precautions. Standard Precautions prevent the spread of infection from blood, all body fluids, secretions, and excretions (except sweat) even if blood is not visible; nonintact skin (skin with open breaks; and mucous membranes.  Practicing standard precautions reduce the the risk of spreading pathogens and known and unknown infections.  Used in the care of all persons. […]