May
6
2011

Normal Range Of Motion

Based on a person’s normal range of motion, exercises may be done. Exercises may be classified as:

1. Passive – someone or something other than the patient himself carries an extremity or part of an extremity through its normal range of motion or through part of its range of motion if other factors limit normal range.

2. Assistive – the patient does as much of the range of motion or the movement that he is capable of doing and the movement is completed with outside help.

3. Active – patient does the entire motion himself.

4. Resistive – patient does the motion against gravity or with added resistance.

Support the part being exercised above and below the joint for ease in handling and to prevent undue discomfort for the patient.

Avoid unnecessary stress and strain on yourself by practicing proper body mechanics. Examples: moving patient to a place on the bed where he can be reached easily; keeping your back straight as possible; bending your knees as necessary to prevent strain on your back.

Keep the part of the patient’s body you are exercising as close to your body as possible.

Include in each exercise session the repetition of every motion of the joint two to five times for the joints needing treatment. Exercises should be done a minimum of once a day, and twice a day would be even better.

Neutral Position
This position is used as a basis for describing and performing the body motions. Neutral position is standing or lying straight, heels together, arms at the side with palms toward body.

Definitions of common terms used in describing body motions

R.O.M. – Range of motion: the extent of movement within a given joint.

Flexion – Bending

Extension – Straightening

Abduction – Moving the part away from the midline

Adduction – Bringing the part toward the midline

Rotation – Turning a limb or body part around its long axis

Motions of the Shoulder

Flexion: Moving arm forward and upward until it is along the side of the head.

Extension: Returning arm downward to the side, or neutral position, after flexion.

Abduction: Moving arm sideways away from the body to above the head.

Adduction: Returning arm to the side, or neutral position, after abduction.

External Rotation: With arm at shoulder height, elbow bent to 90 degree angle, palm toward feet-turning upper arm until the palm and forearm face forward.

Internal Rotation: With arm at shoulder height, elbow bent to 90 degree angle, palm toward feet-turning upper arm until palm and forearm face backward.

Motions of the elbow

Flexion: Bending the elbow bringing forearm and hand toward shoulder.

Extension: Returning forearm and hand to neutral position (arm straight)

Motions of the forearm

Supination: With elbow at waist, bent to 90 degree angle-turning hand so that palm is facing up.

Pronation: With elbow at waist, bent to 90 degree angle – turning hand so that palm is facing down.

Motion of the wrist

Flexion: Bending of the wrist so that palm is toward forearm.

Extension: Moving hand so that back of hand is moved toward forearm.

Hyperextension: Moving hand so that back of hand is moved toward forearm.

Radial deviation: Moving hand sideways so that thumb side of hand is moved toward forearm.

Ulnar Deviation: Moving hand sideways so that little finger side of hand is moved toward the forearm.

Motions of the hip

Flexion: Bending hip by moving the leg forward as far as possible.

Extension: Returning legs from the flexed hip position to the neutral position.

Abduction: Moving leg outward from the body as far as possible.

Adduction: Returning leg from the abducted position to the neutral position and across the other leg as far as possible.

Internal Rotation: Turning leg in an inward motion.

External Rotation: Turning leg in an outward motion.

Motions of the knee

Flexion: Bending knee bringing lower leg and foot toward back of upper leg.

Extension: Returning lower leg and foot to neutral position (leg straight)

Motion of the Ankle and Leg

Dorsal Flexion: Moving foot up and toward the leg.

Plantar Flexion: Moving foot down and away from the leg.

Eversion: Moving foot sideways toward little toe.

Inversion: Moving foot sideways toward big toe.

Flexion: Bending toes toward ball of foot

Extension: Straightening toes and pulling them toward the shinbone as far as possible.

Nicetas

About the Author: Nicetas Juanillo

Writing makes me happy away from home. My website is where you can find my tips about lifestyle, health and other issues. I also have books on my site that you can read to know more

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